While Homo sapiens in Africa faced drought and extinction, Neanderthal Man in Europe had adapted well. But the development of a crucial tool - imagination - changed everything.
- Homo heidelbergensis, 140,000 years ago, evolved into: homo neanderthalensis and homo sapiens.
- Homo neanderthalensis inhabited northern Europe and survived the ice age.
- Homo sapiens inhabited Africa, surviving a devastating drought by anticipating future possibilities.
- Homo sapiens were the species who would evolve into modern man.
Europe - 500,000 years ago
Nearly half a million years ago, an advanced species of human roamed Europe.
Strong and powerful, Homo heidelbergensis were fierce hunters...
... They used sophisticated tools and lived in close-knit family groups.
However, heidelbergensis were missing something vital.
They could only see the world as it was; they were lacking the thing that makes us human - imagination.
Over some 200,000 years, the heidelbergensis were split into two populations by extreme weather and environment, causing them to evolve into two very different species.
Homo heidelbergensis evolved into: Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens
In the north were Homo neanderthalensis, their physical power and resilience key to surviving in the ice age of northern Europe.
Homo neanderthalensis. Northern Europe. 140,000 years ago
They were shorter than the heidelbergensis reaching only about 1.5m, with short limbs and extremities to retain vital heat.
Neanderthals were also incredibly tough and could cope with immense pain that we would find unbearable.
In Africa - about 140,000 years ago and in the grip of a devastating drought - the other descendents of heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, were close to extinction.
Homo sapiens. 140,000 years ago. Africa
But this extreme environment drove the development of imagination.
Homo sapiens began to understand and anticipate future possibilities.
For example, they would store food and water for future use, because they could imagine the impacts of another dry season.
It was this forward thinking that would save them from extinction.
It was recently discovered that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis interbred, and that between 1% and 4% of DNA in modern man is from neanderthals.
But eventually it would be the small band of Homo sapiens in Africa who would come to dominate the world and evolve into modern man.
Over millions of years it was our ancestors' ability to adapt to the ever-changing world around them that eventually led to us.